Powdery Texture (Helps in Mining and Mineral Processing)
One of the benefits of dealing with lunar material is that it's powdery on the surface. Indeed, the astronauts compared it to ash. Look at how fine the imprints of their sunken footprints are.
The reason for this is the lack of any shielding atmosphere, which has allowed meteorites, micrometeorites and solar and cosmic radiation to bombard the surface over the eons, pulverizing it into powder. Typically, the thickness of the powder is 2 to 10 meters in the lowlands, and 100s to 1000s of meters (kilometers) in the highlands, the highlands consisting of piles of crater ejecta.
Since the surface of the Moon has been unchanged by any geologic activity for 3+ billion years, we see the accumulated effects of 3+ billion years of meteorite bombardment and pulverization.
As a NASA report summarizes: "The fragmented material consists of as much as 25% by weight under 20 micrometers in diameter [i.e., one fiftieth of a millimeter!], and more than 70% under 150 micrometers in size [i.e., one seventh of a millimeter]. Approximately 90% by weight of the lunar soil consists of particles under 1 millimeter in size." It's more powdery in some places than in others.
The material properties of lunar soil are discussed further in the section on mining.
spacesettlement.com > Lunar Resources (Mining The Moon) > Origin and Composition > Powdery Texture
If you choose to submit feedback, then I wish to thank you in advance.
After you click on Submit, the page will jump to the top.
Reasons to do something yourself:
- It will help save life on our special planet -- be part of the solution in your generation.
- It will create and secure a better future for your children and grandchildren.
- It could be an interesting, cool, and a fun adventure for your life!
You can join us and volunteer to help out,
... or ...
If you're short on time, you can just donate. For money, please contact Mark Prado via his personal website at www.mark-prado.com.
If you really much prefer to send by cryptocurrency, then you can donate into a wallet of any of our cryptocoins, though this is our least preferable way to receive donations ..., so please donate this way only if it's really much more convenient or feasible for you. The wallets are included in my cryptocoin critiques opinion page.
... or ...
Suggest this website to other people and organizations.
PERMANENT needs a PHP / MySQL (actually, MariaDB) programmer. Are you a PHP / MySQL programmer interested in getting into space development as a career, or already working in space development? Or do you know somebody else who might be interested?
This is a volunteer, unpaid role at this point in time. A limited paid role would be considered on a tight budget, such as for at least bug fixing with some minor improvements, and/or a security review of our code before it goes online publicly. If you or one of your friends or associates may be interested, please send an email to spaceprogrammer at ... of course this domain.
To get updates on PERMANENT (occasional, not frequent), get on our mailing list.
For general or specific e-mail regarding PERMANENT, please use our Feedback page.
Leave information about yourself in our people, companies, and organizations database.
If you are interested in hiring our expertise, anywhere in the world, please contact us.
We have people in the USA and Thailand, and can travel or consult by internet.
You can call anytime, 24/7, at +66-8-1135-7977
Text by Mark Prado, Copyright © 1983-2023, All Rights Reserved.
Many website artistic design elements by Sam Fraser, Copyright © 1999-2023, All Rights Reserved.
Except where specifically stated otherwise,
Copyright © 1983-2023 by Mark Evan Prado, All Rights Reserved
P rojects to E mploy R esources of the M oon and
A steroids N ear E arth in the N ear T erm
P rojects to E mploy R esources of the M oon
A steroids N ear E arth
in the N ear T erm
This website has a lot of text content, so here are some suggestions on how to navigate and also recognize pages you're seen already vs. still unseen pages in the SiteMap.
There are 2 ways to browse this website:
- The SiteMap page.
The pulldown menu and the SiteMap are the same tree of pages and links. The pulldown menu offers + and - for expand and collapse sections/subsections/sub-subsections... of the tree, sometimes multiple levels, whereas the SiteMap has everything expanded with no + or - expand and collapse options so the SiteMap is much longer, compared to the pulldown menu if not fully expanded. You may just choose which of the two formats you prefer at a particular time.
The SiteMap colors links red which you have already visited, vs. normal blue for still unseen. It is convenient to browse the SiteMap in one tab or window, and opening pages in other tabs/windows (Ctrl-click or right-click), such as browsing the whole SiteMap to skip pages you've already seen and to choose to open pages you haven't read yet.
The pulldown menu doesn't change the color of seen pages, unfortunately, unlike the SiteMap. However, using the pulldown menu, you can quickly browse the list of sections and other pages without leaving the page you're on. The SiteMap is a separate page of its own.